Swedish jazz has just died. November 9, was indeed a black day for Swedish music. It would be an exaggeration to claim that Jan Johansson was Swedish jazz, as the country boasted many fine exponents of the art: there was clarinetist Stan Hasselgard, who played in Benny Goodman's group in the late s; baritone saxophonist Lars Gullin, an important and unique figure who so impressed trumpeter Chet Baker and who was the first European to win a jazz poll in the U.
There were outstanding singers such as Monica Zetterlund, who recorded Waltz for Debby Universal, with Bill Evans - piano. Esbjorn Svensson - piano. Bobo Stenson b. Tord Gustavsen b. Charlie Parker - saxophone, alto. John Coltrane - saxophone. Listen to "Never truly true". Early 2nd German pressing with pink Saba labels but no tree logo.
Listen to "Opinions". Swedish only original. Italian only original. Andrew Wasylyk. Comes with photo book. The Beatles. David Bowie. Pink Floyd. Elvis Presley. Release Year see all. Record Label see all.
Edition see all. Record Grading see all. Condition see all. Not specified. Please provide a valid price range. Buying format see all. All listings. Best Offer. Buy it now. Classified Ads. Item location see all. UK Only. European Union. Delivery options see all. Free postage. Another influential Amerian was Dexter Gordon. Living in Copenhagen, he often made tours in Sweden with young Swedish musicians. Domnerus himself was an outstanding soloist and the group consisted of some of the top musicians in the country.
They mastered a broad musical spectrum, from Ellington moods to experimental contemporary jazz. A great part of the reportoire was composed by pianist Jan Johansson and basist Georg Riedel. The group also found new venues for their music, such as concert halls, performing with symphony orchestras, and in churches together with choirs.
While the stylus only moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally. During playback, the movement of a single stylus tracking the groove is sensed independently, e. The combined stylus motion can be represented in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels. In the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued first by Audio Fidelity followed by a translucent blue vinyl on Bel Canto Records , the first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back.
However, it was not until the mid-to-late s that the sales of stereophonic LPs overtook those of their monophonic equivalents, and became the dominant record type. The development of quadraphonic records was announced in These recorded four separate sound signals.
This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal. When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later surround sound systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today.
This system encoded the front-rear difference information on an ultrasonic carrier. CD-4 was less successful than matrix formats.
A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the high frequency information. This was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom.
Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra performance of Pictures at an Exhibition , conducted by Rafael Kubelik , was described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic. The series of records was then named Mercury Living Presence. In , Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone.
The center single microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks. The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of three-to-two mix directly to the master recorder.
Through the s, s, and s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass-produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. RCA Victor introduced another system to reduce dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove. Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise. Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects.
Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies.
Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further. Also in the late s, " direct-to-disc " records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market. These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Also during this period, half-speed mastered and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.
A further late s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown inch singles released between and The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records. The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side. The mids saw the introduction of dbx-encoded records, again for the audiophile niche market.
ELPJ , a Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact.
The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records, and the laser does not play back colored vinyl or picture discs. Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback.
In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories.
In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs. Terms such as "long-play" LP and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track records that play much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes.
Many pre LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side. The term EP is still used for a release that is longer than a single but shorter than an album, even if it is not on vinyl format. The usual diameters of the holes are 0.
Many 7" singles pressed outside the US come with the smaller spindle hole size, and are occasionally pressed with notches to allow the center part to be "punched out" for playing on larger spindles. Sizes of records in the United States and the UK are generally measured in inches, e.
LPs were inch records at first, but soon the inch size became by far the most common. Flexi discs were thin flexible records that were distributed with magazines and as promotional gifts from the s to the s. This format was soon dropped as it became clear that the RCA 45 was the single of choice and the Columbia inch LP would be the album of choice. Most colors were soon dropped in favor of black because of production problems. However, yellow and deep red were continued until about Price, plant manager.
In the s, the government of Bhutan produced now-collectible postage stamps on playable vinyl mini-discs. The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side, running from the outside edge towards the center. The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle. The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus needle placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.
Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound exceptions include the Beatles ' Sgt. Increasingly from the early 20th century,  and almost exclusively since the s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves.
Occasional records have been issued since then with a recording on only one side. The coloring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon black , which increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque. Some records are pressed on colored vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them "picture discs". During the s there was a trend for releasing singles on colored vinyl—sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters.
This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles. Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size. The stylus is lowered onto the lead-in, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.
This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track. Towards the center, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out.
At the very end of this section the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record. On some recordings for example Sgt. Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches the wider spacing in the groove, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record. Precisely because of this mechanism, most automatic turntables are incapable of playing any audio in the lock groove, since they will lift the arm before it reaches that groove.
The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record. Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut.
These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings". When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised or ridged outer edge and a raised label area, allowing records to be stacked onto each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage. Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order.
Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several inch or inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.
The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. During the early s, as a cost-cutting move, much of the industry began reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing. Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, which have been reported to have better sound than normal vinyl because of their higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play.
Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care. This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point.
Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control. The " orange peel " effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds.
Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel. This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.
With direct metal mastering DMM , the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself. As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove. Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a modulated groove into a blank record.
The blank records for cutting used to be cooked up, as needed, by the cutting engineer, using what Robert K. Morrison describes as a "metallic soap", containing lead litharge, ozokerite, barium sulfate, montan wax, stearin and paraffin, among other ingredients. Cut "wax" sound discs would be placed in a vacuum chamber and gold-sputtered to make them electrically conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made.
Later, the French company Pyral invented a ready-made blank disc having a thin nitro-cellulose lacquer coating approximately 7 mils thickness on both sides that was applied to an aluminum substrate.
Lacquer cuts result in an immediately playable, or processable, master record. If vinyl pressings are wanted, the still-unplayed sound disc is used as a mandrel for electroforming nickel records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers.