It costs too much money to make settlements on battle maps, too much money to make roads do things, and too much money to make river battles. Just too much money.
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Logistics Military—industrial complex Arms industry Materiel Supply chain management. Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater. Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Wars of Alexander the Great. Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle during these wars recorded by Greek writers, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater. Qin's Wars of Unification. Year is uncertain — Part of the Roman Conquest of Britain. While offering also mainstream music, the "gas station cassettes" became associated with genres like Gipsy rhumba , light music and joke tapes that were very popular in the 's and 's.
Between and , the cassette tape was the most popular format in the UK and record labels experimented with innovative packaging designs. A designer during the era explained: "There was so much money in the industry at the time, we could try anything with design. Until , cassettes remained the dominant medium for purchasing and listening to music in some developing countries , but compact disc CD technology had superseded the Compact Cassette in the vast majority of music markets throughout the world by this time.
In Western Europe and North America, the market for cassettes declined sharply after its peak in the late s. This was particularly noticeable with pre-recorded cassettes, the sales of which were overtaken by those of CDs during the early s. Since then, further decline occurred, with very few retailers stocking them because they are no longer issued by the major music labels. Sales of pre-recorded music cassettes in the U.
Cassettes remained popular for specific applications, such as car audio and telephone answering machines , well into the s. Cassettes players were typically more resistant to shocks than CD players, and their lower fidelity was not considered a serious drawback. However, the advent of "shock proof" buffering technology in CD players, the general heightening of consumer expectations, and the introduction of CD auto-changers meant that, by the early s, the CD player rapidly replaced the cassette player as the default audio component in the majority of new vehicles in Europe and America.
As of [update] , blank cassettes were still being produced and sold at some retail stores, often identified as audio cassettes, with the original Compact Cassette logo all but vanished from the packaging.
Cassette recorders and players were gradually becoming more scarce, and fewer facilities for cassette duplication remained available.
While digital voice recorders are now common, microcassette recorders are still used for note taking in business and educational settings. Audiobooks , church services, and other spoken-word material are sometimes sold on cassette. Although portable digital recorders are most common today, analog tape remains a desirable option for certain artists and consumers. Even among major label stars, the form has at least one devotee: Thurston Moore claimed in , "I only listen to cassettes.
In , Botswana-based Diamond Studios announced plans  for establishing a plant to mass-produce cassettes in a bid to combat piracy. It opened in In South Korea, the early English education boom for toddlers encourages a continuous demand for English language cassettes, as of [update] , due to the affordable cost. In , the Oxford English Dictionary removed the word "cassette player" from its 12th edition Concise version. In India, film and devotional music continued to be released in the cassette format due to its low cost until National Audio Company in Missouri, the largest of the few remaining manufacturers of audiocassettes in the U.
In , retail chain Urban Outfitters , which had long carried Vinyl LPs , started carrying a line of new pre-recorded cassette tapes along with blank cassettes and players  featuring both new and vintage albums. A number of synthwave artists such as The Midnight , Michael Oakley and Anders Enger Jensen have released their albums on cassette in addition to the usual digital download format. Some tracks in this genre notably The Midnight's Endless Summer and Memories , LeBrock's Please Don't Cry and Michael Oakley's Rabbit in the Headlights include sound effects at the beginning or end of the track to help give an ambience of listening on cassette even when the music itself is being played digitally.
Since , cassette tape sales have seen a modest resurgence, with , and all showing increased sales. The cassette was a great step forward in convenience from reel-to-reel audio tape recording , although, because of the limitations of the cassette's size and speed, it initially compared poorly in quality.
Unlike the 4-track stereo open-reel format, the two stereo tracks of each side lie adjacent to each other, rather than being interleaved with the tracks of the other side.
This permitted monaural cassette players to play stereo recordings "summed" as mono tracks and permitted stereo players to play mono recordings through both speakers. The tape is 0. In stereo, each track is further divided into a left and a right channel of 0. Cassette tapes are made of a polyester-type plastic film with a magnetic coating. The original magnetic material was based on gamma ferric oxide Fe 2 O 3. Circa , 3M Company developed a cobalt volume-doping process combined with a double-coating technique to enhance overall tape output levels.
This product was marketed as "High Energy" under its Scotch brand of recording tapes. For this reason, some low-grade IEC Type I tapes have been marketed specifically as better suited for data storage than for sound recording. In  DuPont , the inventor of chromium dioxide CrO 2 manufacturing process, began commercialization of CrO 2 media.
The first CrO 2 cassette was introduced in by Advent ,  and later strongly backed by BASF , the inventor and longtime manufacturer of magnetic recording tape. Cobalt - adsorbed iron oxide Avilyn was introduced by TDK in and proved very successful. The tape coating on most cassettes sold today as either "normal" or "chrome" consists of ferric oxide and cobalt mixed in varying ratios and using various processes ; there are very few cassettes on the market that use a pure CrO 2 coating.
Simple voice recorders and earlier cassette decks are designed to work with standard ferric formulations. Newer tape decks usually are built with switches and later detectors for the different bias and equalization requirements for higher grade tapes. The recording bias levels also were different. The quality normally is reflected in the price; Type I cassettes generally are the cheapest, and Type IV are usually the most expensive. BASF chrome tape used in commercially pre-recorded cassettes used type I equalization to allow greater high-frequency dynamic range for better sound quality, but the greater selling point for the music labels was that the Type I cassette shell could be used for both ferric and for chrome music cassettes.
Notches on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape. Type I cassettes have only write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV metal have a third set near the middle of the top of the cassette shell. These allow later cassette decks to detect the tape type automatically and select the proper bias and equalization.
An exception to this standard were mechanical storytelling dolls from the s e. These toys used the Type IV notches to detect that a specially coded tape had been inserted, where the audio of the story is stored on the left channel and various cue tones to tell the doll's servos how and when to move along with the story on the right channel.
Tape length usually is measured in minutes of total playing time. The most popular varieties always marketed with a capital letter 'C' prefix are C46 23 minutes per side , C60 30 minutes per side , C90, and C The C46 and C60 lengths typically are 15 to 16 micrometers 0.
Some vendors are more generous than others, providing or meters or feet rather than meters feet of tape for a C90 cassette. Even C tapes were available at one time,  but these were extremely thin and fragile and suffered from such effects as print-through , which made them unsuitable for general use. All of these were discontinued - Maxell simplified its cassette offer to 10, 20, 60 and minute lengths, Sony exited the audio cassette market globally, and Imation , licensee of the TDK trademark, exited the consumer products market.
Some companies included a complimentary blank cassette with their portable cassette recorders in the early s. Panasonic 's was a C14 and came with a song recorded on side one, and a blank side two. Except for C74 and C, such non-standard lengths always have been hard to find, and tend to be more expensive than the more popular lengths. Home taping enthusiasts may have found certain lengths useful for fitting an album neatly on one or both sides of a tape. For instance, the initial maximum playback time of Compact Discs was 74 minutes, explaining the relative popularity of C74 cassettes.
The full tape width is 3. For mono recording the track width is 1. In stereo mode each channel has width of 0. The "head gap" of a tape recorder refers to the space, in the direction of tape movement, between the ends of the pole pieces of the head. Without a gap the head would produce a "closed" magnetic field and so would not interact sufficiently with the magnetic domains on the tape. A narrower gap would give a higher frequency limit but also weaker magnetization.
Separate record and playback heads were already a standard feature of more expensive reel-to-reel tape machines when cassettes were introduced, but their application to cassette recorders had to wait until demand developed for higher quality reproduction, and for sufficiently small heads to be produced.
All cassettes include a write protection mechanism to prevent re-recording and accidental erasure of important material. Each side of the cassette has a plastic tab on the top that may be broken off, leaving a small indentation in the shell. This indentation allows the entry of a sensing lever that prevents the operation of the recording function when the cassette is inserted into a cassette deck.
If the cassette is held with one of the labels facing the user and the tape opening at the bottom, the write-protect tab for the corresponding side is at the top-left. Occasionally and usually on higher-priced cassettes, manufacturers provided a movable panel that could be used to enable or disable write-protect on tapes. If later required, a piece of adhesive tape can be placed over the indentation to bypass the protection, or on some decks , the lever can be manually depressed to record on a protected tape.
Extra care is required to avoid covering the additional indents on high bias or metal bias tape cassettes adjacent to the write-protect tabs. In most cassettes, the magnetic tape is attached to each spool with a leader, usually made of strong plastic.
This leader protects the weaker magnetic tape from the shock occurring when the tape reaches the end. Leaders can be complex: a plastic slide-in wedge anchors a short fully opaque plastic tape to the take-up hub; one or more tinted semi-opaque plastic segments follow; the clear leader a tintless semi-opaque plastic segment follows, which wraps almost all the way around the supply reel, before splicing to the magnetic tape itself.
The clear leader spreads the shock load to a long stretch of tape instead of to the microscopic splice. Various patents have been issued detailing leader construction and associated tape player mechanisms to detect leaders. The disadvantage with tape leaders is that the sound recording or playback does not start at the beginning of the tape, forcing the user to cue forward to the start of the magnetic section.
For certain applications, such as dictation, special cassettes containing leaderless tapes are made, typically with stronger material and for use in machines that had more sophisticated end-of-tape prediction.
Home computers that made use of cassettes as a more affordable alternative to floppy discs e. Some cassettes were made to play a continuous loop of tape without stopping. Lengths available are from around 30 seconds to a standard full length.
They are used in situations where a short message or musical jingle is to be played, either continuously or whenever a device is triggered, or whenever continuous recording or playing is needed.
Some include a sensing foil on the tape to allow tape players to re-cue. From as early as various patents have been issued, covering such uses as uni-directional, bi-directional, and compatibility with auto-shut-off and anti-tape-eating mechanisms. One variant has a half-width loop of tape for an answering machine outgoing message, and another half-width tape on spools to record incoming messages.
Cassette tape adapters allow external audio sources to be played back from any tape player, but were typically used for car audio systems. An attached audio cable with a phone connector converts the electrical signals to be read by the tape head, while mechanical gears simulate reel to reel movement without actual tapes when driven by the player mechanism.
This feature each includes a rail to guide the tape to the spool and prevent an unclean roll from forming. The competition responded by inserting additional deflector pins closer to the coils in the lower plastic case half. Some low-priced and pre-recorded compact cassettes were made without pulleys; the tape is pulled directly over the capstan drive.
Cassette playback suffered from some flaws frustrating to both professionals and home recording enthusiasts. Tape speed could vary between devices, resulting in pitch that was too low or too high. Speed often was calibrated at the factory, and could not be changed by users. The slow tape speed increased tape hiss and noise, and in practice delivered higher values of wow and flutter. Different tape formulation and noise reduction schemes artificially boosted or cut high frequencies and inadvertently elevated noise levels.
Noise reduction also adds some artifacts to the sound, which a trained ear can hear sometimes quite easily. Wow and Flutter, however, can sometimes be added intentionally to recordings for aesthetic reasons.
See Lo-fi music. A common mechanical problem occurred when a worn-out or dirty player rotated the supply spool faster than the take-up spool or failed to release the heads from the tape upon ejection.Cassette THE BEATLES 13 CASSETTE TAPE COLLECTION BOX SET UK PARLOPHONE / APPLE MINT Sold for USD on (Best Offer).